【 Introduction 】
Russian Federation, also known as Russia (Russian：Российская Федерация，English：Russian Federation). It is a federal Republican constitutional state composed of 22 autonomous republics, 46 states, 9 border areas, 4 autonomous regions, 1 Autonomous Prefecture and 3 federal municipalities directly under the Central Government. The national flag is white, blue and red. The main body of the national emblem is a double-headed eagle pattern. Russia is located in the northern part of Eurasia, spanning two continents: Eurasia and Asia. It covers an area of 17.09.82 million square kilometers. It is the largest country in the world. It is also a united multi-ethnic country composed of 194 ethnic groups. The main ethnic group is Russians, accounting for about 77.7% of the total population of the country.
The ancestors of the Russians were the Ross tribe of the Eastern Slavs. At the end of the 15th century, Grand Duke Ivan III established the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Ivan IV called himself Czar in 1547, and Peter I was awarded the title of "All Russian Emperor" by the Senate in 1721, and established the Russian Empire. On the road of aggression and expansion, he annexed many Eurasian countries and reached its peak in the late eighteenth century under the rule of Catherine II. Soviet Russia was founded after the October Revolution in 1917. On 30 December 1922, the Russian Federation formed the Soviet Union with the Federation of the South Caucasus, Ukraine and Belarus. During the Cold War, he became a superpower, and he fought for hegemony with the United States by vigorously developing military forces.
After the disintegration of the Soviet Union on December 25, 1991, Russia, the largest allied country, inherited most of the military power of the Soviet Union. It has the largest nuclear arsenal in the world. In the international system of "one superpower, many superpowers", Russia is a powerful country with great influence, and its military strength is strong. Especially higher education and aerospace technology, Russia ranks first in the world. Russia is also one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council and has a veto on the Security Council bill. In addition, Russia is one of the BRICS countries.
【 Economics 】
Russia has a strong industrial and technological foundation. The Soviet Union was the second largest economic power in the world and was overtaken by Japan in 1978. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the Russian economy suffered a serious recession and continued to decline. Since Putin came to power in 2000, the Russian economy has recovered rapidly, and has maintained growth for eight consecutive years (an average annual growth rate of 6.7%), foreign trade exports have increased substantially, investment environment has improved, and residents'income has increased significantly. The main industrial sectors are machinery, metallurgy, petroleum, natural gas, coal and chemical industry; the textile, food and wood processing industries are relatively backward; the aerospace and nuclear industries have advanced levels in the world. Finance and finance are generally getting better. In 2006, gold foreign exchange reserves ranked third in the world; the ruble appreciated by 7.6%; and the international credit rating was improved. Since July 2006, Russia has fully convertible roubles and stable exchange rate.
At the end of 2005, Russia's gross national product recovered from US$157 billion in 1999 to about US$750 billion, and its gold foreign exchange reserves increased from less than US$10 billion at the end of 1998 to US$182.2 billion. By the end of 2006, it had broken through the deposit barrier of $280 billion and became one of the countries with the largest foreign exchange reserves in the world.
Under the double impact of the global financial crisis and the sharp drop in international oil prices, the Russian economy, which maintained high growth from 2002 to 2012, is slowing down dramatically. In December 2008, the economic growth rate shrank by 1.1% compared with the same period last year, showing the first negative growth since 2002.
In 2017, Russia's GDP grew by 1.5% year-on-year. As at 28 December 2018, international reserves amounted to about $466.9 billion.
In January 2019, Russian Economic Development Minister Oleshkin said that Russia's economic growth rate was 2% in 2018.
The rouble is the unit of currency and the auxiliary currency is the gobi.
1 ruble = 100 gobi. The denominations of banknotes are 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 5000 rubles, 1 ruble, 2 rubles, 5 rubles, 10 rubles, and 1, 5, 10, 50 Gobi coins.
The ruble exchange rate (September 5, 2017) is US$1 = 57.8707 Russian rubles, RMB yuan = 8.8535 Russian rubles, 1 yuan = 0.5296 Russian rubles, 1 pound = 74.8384 Russian rubles, and 1 euro = 68.9124 Russian rubles.
Russian industry is well developed, and nuclear industry and aerospace industry occupy an important position in the world. Industrial output in 2004 was 11209 billion roubles, an increase of 6.1% over the same period last year. The industrial employment population is 20.554 million, accounting for 30.5% of the total employment population (67.322 million).
It has a strong industrial base and complete departments, with machinery, iron and steel, metallurgy, petroleum, natural gas, coal, forest industry and chemical industry as the main industries. Wood and wood processing industry is also relatively developed. Russian industrial structure is unreasonable, heavy industry is developed, light industry is developing slowly, and the backward situation of civil industry has not changed fundamentally.
Major industrial areas
Moscow Industrial Zone: Russia's most developed industrial areas, mainly automobiles, aircraft, rockets, steel, electronics.
St. Petersburg Industrial Zone: mainly petrochemical, paper and shipbuilding, aerospace and electronics, is the most developed region of Russian food and textile industry.
Ural Industrial Zone: mainly petroleum, steel and machinery.
New Siberia Industrial Zone: mainly coal, oil, natural gas, steel, electricity.
Russian IT industry has developed rapidly, especially in software development, which has been at the forefront of the world. Yandex, Kaspersky and other world famous software manufacturers have emerged.
The agricultural population is 6.684 million, accounting for 9.9% of the total employed population. Agriculture and animal husbandry are equally important. The main crops are wheat, barley, oats, maize, rice and beans. The main cash crops are flax, sunflower and beet. Animal husbandry owners mainly focus on cattle raising, sheep raising, pig raising and standardization.
In 2004, the output value of service industry was 42035 trillion rubles, accounting for 25% of GDP. In 2004, the service industry employed 4.084 million people, accounting for 59.6% of the total employed population (67.322 million).
According to the statistics of the Russian Customs Committee, the import and export of goods trade in 2009 amounted to 389.14 billion US dollars, a decrease of 37.6% compared with the previous year (the same below). Among them, exports decreased by 36.4%, imports by 39.3% and surpluses by 29.7% to $233.94 billion, 155.21 billion and 78.73 billion respectively. Russia's main export commodities are mineral products such as oil and natural gas, metals and their products, chemical products, machinery and transportation tools, precious stones and their products, wood and pulp, etc. The main imported commodities are machinery and equipment, transportation tools, food and agricultural raw materials, chemical products and rubber, metal and its products, textile and garment products, etc.
In 2012, foreign investment in Russia totaled 154.6 billion US dollars, a decrease of 18.9% compared with the same period last year. Among them, foreign direct investment (FDI) was $18.67 billion, an increase of 1.4% over the previous year; securities investment was $1.82 billion, an increase of 1.3 times over the previous year; other types of investment was $134.09 billion, a decrease of 21.8% over the previous year. Foreign capital mainly invests in manufacturing, finance, commerce, transportation and electrical maintenance, mineral mining, real estate and rental services, with a total investment of US$150.81 billion, accounting for 97.5% of the total foreign investment in Russia during the same period.
By the end of 2012, Russia had invested 117.8 billion US dollars overseas. Among them, direct investment amounted to 73.93 billion US dollars, accounting for 62.8%; securities investment amounted to 12.68 billion US dollars, accounting for 10.8%; other types of investment amounted to 31.19 billion US dollars, accounting for 26.4%.
The top countries in Russia's cumulative foreign investment are the Netherlands, Cyprus, Switzerland, the United States, the United Kingdom, Belarus, Luxembourg, the Virgin Islands, Austria and Ukraine.